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NANDA Hepatitis

Nursing Diagnosis for Hepatitis

Hepatitis is a serious inflammation of the liver and is usually caused by certain types of viruses. Hepatitis is characterized by the destruction of a number of liver cells and the presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue caused by excessive alcohol drinking, disorders of the gall bladder or pancreas, including medication side effects, and infections.

There are some types of bacteria that can also cause hepatitis. Hepatitis can be either acute or chronic. Acute is the rapid onset with severe symptoms and for a short time. Chronic is long standing and can come on slowly, with or without any symptoms and last for a long time.

Probably the most well known but not the most common cause is alcohol abuse. However, there are also many drugs that have a toxic effect on the liver and cause inflammation particularly when used in large quantities. One of these is an over the counter pain killer known as acetaminophen. Taken in high doses it can seriously injure the liver. Prescription drugs that cause problems are methyldopa, isoniazid, valproate, and amiodarone.

Most of the known viruses do not affect the liver. When doctors speak about hepatitis, they are usually referring to any of the five viruses identified that primarily attack the liver and are referred to as types A, B, C, D and E.

Hepatitis A is highly contagious and is spread by consuming food or water that has been contaminated by infected fecal material. Improperly cooked shellfish are another source. The period of contagion lasts from six days to six weeks. It usually requires one to two months to recover from the disease. There is a vaccine for Hepatitis A and doctors strongly recommend that anyone planning to travel to an area where Hepatitis A is common be vaccinated. It should also be given to health care workers who may be exposed to the virus such as medical laboratory workers and daycare workers. Travelers to infected areas should drink only bottled water and avoid uncooked and partially cooked foods.
Hepatitis B is spread by infected blood. It may also be transmitted through contact with infected saliva. Drug abusers are at high risk due to the sharing of needles. It is possible to be infected with the Hepatitis B virus but never develop hepatitis. There is also a vaccine available that produces long lasting immunity to hepatitis. The vaccine is recommended for all infants and children under 18, and anyone with a skin puncture from a possibly contaminated implement. People whose work, travels, or lifestyle increases their susceptibility to the virus are also advised to be vaccinated. This group would include health care workers who are exposed to blood, travelers, residents of custodial institutions and the staff.
Hepatitis C is transmitted in the same manner as Hepatitis B and the same people are at risk. However, people who received blood transfusions prior to 1990 are also at risk because the virus had not yet been discovered. Hepatitis D will only result in hepatitis when the B virus is also present. The D virus is spread through close personal contact rather than being exposed to blood. Hepatitis E is somewhat like Hepatitis A but it rarely occurs in the United States.
NANDA Hepatitis

Nursing Diagnosis for Hepatitis

  1. Imbalanced nutrition: Less than body requirements

  2. Impaired skin integrity

  3. Activity Intolerance

  4. Acute pain

  5. Hyperthermia

  6. Risk for Infection

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