Provision of Nursing Care is a therapeutic process that involves cooperation relations with clients, families or communities to achieve optimal health levels (Canpernito, 2000.2).
Nurses need the scientific method in the therapeutic process of the nursing process. The nursing process is used to assist nurses in nursing practice in a systematic in addressing nursing problems that exist, where the four components influence each other, namely: assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation form a chain.
Patterns of Health Functions
1) Health Perception and Health Management
The existence of medical and hospital care affect the change in perceptions about health, but it sometimes raises an incorrect perception towards health maintenance. The possibility of a history of smoking, drinking alcohol and drug use can be a predisposing factor of disease onset.
2) Nutritional Metabolic Pattern
In the assessment of nutritional and metabolic patterns, we need to take measurements of height and weight to determine the patient's nutritional status, but also need to be asked eating and drinking habits before and during the hospital, patients with pleural effusion will experience a decrease in appetite as a result of shortness of breath and an emphasis on abdominal structures. Increased metabolism will occur due to the disease process. patients with pleural effusion are generally weak state.
3) Elimination Pattern
In the assessment of the pattern of elimination need to be asked about bowel habits before and after in hospital. Because the patient's general condition is weak, the patient will be more bed rest so that it will cause constipation, but due to digestion on the structure of the abdomen causes a decrease in the peristaltic muscles of the digestive tract.
4) Activity and Exercise Pattern
Due to shortness of breath, tissue oxygen demand will be less satisfied and examination will quickly experience fatigue on minimal activity. Besides, patients will also reduce its activity due to chest pain. And to meet the needs of its most ADL needs of patients assisted by a nurse and family.
5) Sleep Rest Pattern
The presence of chest pain, shortness of breath and increased body temperature will affect the fulfillment of needs sleep and rest, in addition to changes in environmental conditions of a quiet home environment into the hospital environment, where many people are walking around, noisy, and so forth.
6) Role-Relationship Pattern
As a result of illness, patients will experience a change in role, eg a housewife patient, the patient can not perform its function as a mother who must care for their children, taking care of her husband. In addition, the role of patients in the community is also changing and all that affects the patient's interpersonal relationships.
7) Self-Perception-Self-Concept Pattern
Patient's perception of themselves will change. Patients who had been healthy, suddenly experienced pain, shortness of breath, chest pain. As a layman, the patient may be assumed that the disease is dangerous and deadly disease. In this case the patient might lose a positive image of himself.
8) Cognitive-Perceptual Pattern
Sensory function of patients had no change, so does the thinking process.
9) Sexuality and Reproduction
For patients who do not know the process will experience stress and illness may be a lot of patients ask nurses and doctors who cared for him or anyone who may be more to know about his illness.
10) Coping-Stress Tolerance Pattern
Sexual needs of patients in this case sexual intercourse would be disturbed for a while because the patient was in hospital and his physical condition was weak.
11) Value-Belief Pattern
As a religious patient will be closer himself and always pray to God.