Schizophrenia? What is meant by schizophrenia? Maybe some people are still unfamiliar with this word. But it is possible for families in which one family member diagnosed with this disease often hear.
Schizophrenia is a persistent and serious brain disease that lead to psychotic behavior, concrete thinking, and difficulty in information processing, interpersonal relationships, and solve problems (Stuart, 2006).
Of several studies found a variety of factors that cause a person was suffering from schizophrenia. According to a source book of nursing spirit of "Iyus Joseph" (2007), that causes the disease of schizophrenia include: genetic factors, viral, auto-antibodies, and the state of malnutrition. The study says that despite the abnormal gene, but the disease does not appear if not accompanied by the factors mentioned above, or the so-called epigenetic. He said the disease also would be at great risk, if someone with epigenetic factors and psychosocial stressors experienced.
According to research from sources J.C. Coleman (1970), people who may have schizophrenia is a disease that has a relationship of twins from one egg (monozygotic) 86.2% suffered from schizophrenia, while the twins from two eggs (heterozygous) 14.5%, 14.2% of siblings, siblings stepdaughter 7.1% and 0.85% general public
Predisposing factors of schizophrenia, the first is the somatic factor or organo-biological. That including the Neuro-anatomy, neuro-physiology, neuro-chemical, organic level of maturity and development, pre and perinatal factors. The second factor is the psycho-educative namely: mother and child interactions, the role of father, competition between siblings, intelligence, relationships within the family, work, play, and society, loss of which causes anxiety or depression, self-concept, skill, talent and creativity , the pattern of adaptation and defense in response to danger, the level of emotional development. Three sociocultural factors include family stability, parenting children, economic level, housing: residential versus rural. (Joseph, 2007)
While the originator of the stressor in schizophrenia may be biological factors associated with neuro-biologist maladaptive responses such as poor nutrition, lack of sleep, circadian rhythms out of balance, fatigue, infection, central nervous system drugs, lack of exercise, barriers in accessing health services. Environmental factors can also trigger this disease is an environment full of criticism, interpersonal difficulties, impaired interpersonal relationships, social isolation, job stress, poverty, etc.. Attitudes and behavioral factors can be triggers as well as low self-concept, lack of self-confidence, social skills are lacking, aggressive behavior, violent behavior, etc.. (Stuart, 2006)
Apparently there are several types of schizophrenia, the first type of paranoid schizophrenia, Hebephrenic Schizophrenic, catatonic, schizophrenia is not classified (undiffentiated), post-schizophrenic depression, residual schizophrenia and other schizophrenia (Maslim, 1998 & Issacs, 2004).
Paranoid schizophrenia is the main characteristic of systematic delusions or auditory hallucinations. These individuals can be suspicious, argumentative, rude, and aggressive. Less regressive behavior, less social damage, and a better prognosis than other types.
Schizophrenic Hebephrenic main characteristics of the chaotic conversation and behavior, as well as flat affect or is not appropriate, the association also prevalent disorders. Individuals also have a strange attitude, demonstrate social withdrawal behavior to the extreme, ignoring hygiene and personal appearance. Onset usually occurs before 25 years and can be chronic. Regressive behavior, with social interaction and contact with the reality that bad.
Catatonic schizophrenia is its main characteristic is characterized by psychomotor disturbance, which would involve immobility or excessive activity. Catatonic stupor. Individuals can show inactivity, negativism, and excessive body flexibility (abnormal posture). Catatonic excitement involve extreme agitation and can be accompanied by ekolalia and ekopraksia.
Schizophrenia is not classified as main characteristics of delusions, hallucinations, conversations that are not coherent and chaotic behavior. This classification is used when the criteria for other types are not met.
Schizophrenia residual main characteristics is the absence of acute symptoms at this time, but occurred in the past. Can occur negative symptoms, such as real social isolation, withdrawal and impaired role functioning.