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Angina Pectoris

Angina pectoris or chest pain is one of the conditions which are triggered by the problems in the cardiovascular system. Angina Pectoris that results from insufficient blood flow to the heart. Angina pectoris may not result in permanent damage to the heart muscle (this may not be true for severe angina pectoris), While the sufferer doesn't really feel the pain around his or her chest, the disease causes discomfort around the chest such as the sensations of choking, burning, squeezing, heaviness, and pressure.

Types of Angina Pectoris
  • Stable angina is found more often in people. The symptoms of this type occur regularly and are predictable. Usually, people with this type suffer from the chest discomfort during exercise and stress, or after consuming heavy meals. Generally, the symptoms last not more than five minutes and improve when the patient rests or takes medications such as nitroglycerin, amlodipine besylate, or ranolazine.
  • Unstable angina is found less often but more serious than the first type. Unlike the stable one, the occurrence of unstable angina cannot be predicted. The symptoms of this type also tend to be more severe. Unstable angina usually creates more pain and occurs longer and more frequent. Usual medication or resting cannot improve the symptoms. While unstable angina differs from heart attack, it is often noted as the precursor to heart attack.

Causes

The problem arises due to insufficient blood flow to the heart, which may be due to hardening of the arteries (Arteriosclerosis) or plaqueing of the arteries (Atherosclerosis), or spasm of the arteries. Other causes may include Anemia, rapid heartbeat (tachycardia), or other heart disease.

Signs and symptoms

Signs and symptoms of this heart related condition may include tightness or pressure in the chest that may radiate to the left shoulder and arm, or possibly the neck and jaw. Other symptoms may include difficulty breathing, anxiety, sweating, or pale skin.

Treatment

During an attack of angina pectoris, a person should rest and take nitroglycerin under the tongue. This may be enough to eliminate the symptoms. Depending on possible underlying conditions, other treatment such as balloon angioplasty or other surgeries may be recommended, or certain medications (beta-blockers, daily aspirin) may be needed. In most cases, a patient can benefit from a healthy diet and exercise, which should be prescribed by their doctor.

NANDA Angina PectorisNursing Diagnosis for Angina Pectoris

1. Acute pain related to myocardial ischemia.

2. Activity intolerance related to decreased cardiac output.

3. Anxiety related to fear of the threat of sudden death.

4. Knowledge Deficit: (need to learn) about the disease, treatment needs related to the lack of information.

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