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Typoid Fever

Typoid fever is an acute infectious disease that usually affects the gastrointestinal tract with symptoms of more than seven days of fever, gastrointestinal disorders and disturbances of consciousness.

According to Lewis, et al (2000: 192) "Typoid fever disease caused by infection with the bacteria Salmonella typhi".

According to Ruth F Craven and Constance J, Hirnie (2002: 1011) typoid fever signs and symptoms include headache, heat, abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomiting.

According to Ngastiyah (2005: 237), Typoid fever in children are usually milder than adults. Future shoots 10-20 days, the shortest 4 days if the infection occurs through food, whereas if through drink longest 30 days. During the incubation period may be found prodromal symptoms, feeling unwell, lethargy, pain, headache, dizziness and not excited, then the following clinical symptoms that are commonly found, namely:

a. Fever
In the typical case, the fever lasts 3 weeks remitten is febrile, and the temperature was not very high. The first week, the body temperature gradually increased every day, down in the morning and rose again on the afternoon and evening. In the third week the temperature gradually dropped and normal again.

b. Disorders of the gastrointestinal tract
In the mouth there is a breath smells, lips dry and chapped. Tongue covered with dirty white membrane (coated tongue), the tip and edges red. Abdominal bloating can be found. Enlarged liver and spleen accompanied by pain and inflammation.

c. Disorders of consciousness
Generally patients decreased consciousness, namely apathy until samnolen. Rarely sopor, coma or anxiety (except for serious illness and delayed treatment). Other symptoms can also be found, in the back and limbs can be found reseol, the red spots due to emboli result in skin capillaries, which are found in the first week of fever, sometimes found also tachycardia and epistaxis.

d. Relapses
Relapse is the recurrence typoid fever symptoms, but mild and lasts shorter. Occurred in the second week after the normal body temperature, the occurrence of difficult to explain. According to the theory of relapses occur because of the presence of bacilli in organs that can not be destroyed by drugs or substances.

Nursing Diagnosis for Typoid Fever

1. Hyperthermia

2. Activity intolerance

3. Risk for fluid volume deficit

4. Imbalanced Nutrition, Less Than Body Requirements

5. Diarrhea

6. Acute Pain

7. Knowledge Deficit

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