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Pathophysiology of Acute Gastritis and Chronic Gastritis

Pathophysiology of Acute Gastritis

Acute gastritis can be caused by stress, chemical substances such as drugs and alcohol, spicy foods, hot and sour. In experiencing the stress will occur sympathetic nerve stimulation NV (vagus nerve), which will increase the production of hydrochloric acid (HCl) in the stomach. The presence of HCl that is in the stomach will cause nausea, vomiting and anorexia.

Chemicals or stimulating foods will cause columnar epithelial cells, whose function is to produce mucus, reducing production. While it is the function of mucus to protect gastric mucosa that did not participate undigested. The response of the gastric mucosa due to decreased vasodilation, mucous secretion varies among gastric mucosal cells. There gastric mucosal lining cells produce HCl (especially the fundus) and blood vessels. Vasodilatation gastric mucosa will cause increased production of HCl. Anorexia can also cause pain. The pain inflicted by HCl contact with the gastric mucosa. Response due to decreased gastric mucosal mucus secretion may be eksfeliasi (exfoliation). Gastric mucosal cell exfoliation will lead to erosion of the mucosal cells. Mucosal cell loss due to erosion lead to bleeding. Bleeding happens to people with life-threatening, but it can also stop yourself because the process of regeneration, so that erosion disappear within 24-48 hours after hemorrhage.

Pathophysiology of Chronic Gastritis

Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacteria. These organisms invade the gastric surface cells, aggravate the onset of cell desquamation and chronic inflammatory responses appeared on gastric ie: destruction of the gland and metaplasia. Metaplasia is one of the body's defense mechanism against irritation, namely by replacing the gastric mucosal cells, such as cells desquamosa stronger. Because cell desquamation stronger then the elasticity is also reduced. At the time of digesting food, the stomach peristaltic movement but as a replacement cells will give rise to inelastic stiffness, which in turn cause pain. Metaplasia also cause loss of mucous cells in the lining of the stomach, so it will cause damage to the mucosal lining of the blood vessels. Damage to blood vessels will cause bleeding (Price, Sylvia and Wilson, Lorraine, 1999: 162).

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